After the Nazi invasion of Poland in 1939, Jewish ghettos were set up in major cities such as Warsaw and Lództo to control the millions of Polish Jews. Inside the ghettos the Jews were forced to live on starvation rations, and following Hitler’s move towards the final solution in 1941, shipment began to the extermination camps.
Despite being trapped in effective death camps, Jewish resistance groups managed to operate. In January 1943 German forces tried to level the ghetto, but were beaten off by Jewish resistance fighters supported by the Polish Home Army, another Polish resistance movement. The second attempt to destroy the ghetto led to the uprising of April 1943. Jewish resistance was led by Mordechaj Anielewicz, and included members of the Jewish Combat Organization and the Jewish Military Union. For one month the Polish Jews fought off the German army and SS, but their resistance was eventually crushed and the Nazis exacted their final revenge.